Agriculture

Agriculture strategies/approaches.

Taxonomy Machine Name
niacs_strategy_ag
Taxonomy Alias
ag

Ephemeral Ponds are moderately to highly vulnerable to climate change related to higher evapotranspiration rates and longer dry spells that may dry ponds earlier and adversely impact species that require inundation for larval development.

Submitted by dshannon on Mon, 01/25/2021 - 08:00

Ephemeral Ponds are often defined based on the amphibians and invertebrates that use them, especially those for which ponds are their primary breeding habitat. Warmer temperatures, higher evapotranspiration rates and longer dry spells could lead to some ponds drying up earlier, which could adversely impact species that require inundation for larval development. Extreme precipitation events could also adversely impact species as well as increase the risk of invasion by non-native plants like reed canary grass.

Emergent Marsh is highly vulnerable to climate change due to more frequent and intense storms that exacerbate sedimentation and nutrient enrichment and possible shift to non-native invasives such as narrow-leaved cat-tails.

Submitted by dshannon on Mon, 01/25/2021 - 08:00

More frequent, higher intensity storms are likely to exacerbate sedimentation and nutrient enrichment. While a detriment to many species, cat-tail, and other marsh generalists may benefit from these disturbances. However, invasive species, including narrow-leaf and hybrid cat-tail, may also benefit, possibly shifting species dominance to non-native cat-tail. Potentially changing precipitation patterns could increase the variability of water level fluctuations, however, Emergent Marsh is highly adapted to, and even benefits from natural fluctuation.

Coastal Plain Marsh is highly vulnerable to climate change due to altered hydrology that lowers water levels and allows tree and shrub invasion.

Submitted by dshannon on Mon, 01/25/2021 - 07:59

Potential changes in groundwater and seepage lake levels could have severe consequences for these communities. Higher temperatures, longer growing seasons, and corresponding increases in evapotranspiration will result in more water leaving the system. This could be exacerbated by anthropogenic demand for groundwater resources. However, projected increases in annual precipitation may offset some of these losses. If water tables drop, tree and shrub invasion is likely along with conversion to non-wetland species.

Central Poor Fen is highly vulnerable to climate change due to changes in hydrology, higher temperatures, longer growing seasons and related impacts to vegetation such as peat loss, tree and shrub invasion.

Submitted by dshannon on Mon, 01/25/2021 - 07:58

Potential changes to hydrology could have adverse impacts on Central Poor Fen. Higher temperatures, longer growing seasons, and corresponding increases in evapotranspiration will result in more water leaving the system. This could be exacerbated by anthropogenic demand for groundwater resources in some areas. However, projected increases in annual precipitation may offset some of these losses. If water tables drop, peat loss and tree and shrub invasion is likely, as is the risk of damaging wildfire. Invasive species are also an increasingly problematic threat.

Calcareous Fen is highly vulnerable to climate change. Many sites are small and isolated with minimal opportunities for species to shift or migrate, giving fens high inherent vulnerability.

Submitted by dshannon on Mon, 01/25/2021 - 07:57

Hydrologic regimes may change, although both an increase in groundwater recharge as well as decreases in ground water levels are possible. In general, shallow groundwater aquifers are expected to change more than deep aquifers. If groundwater levels and associated discharge and upwelling remain steady, sites with intact hydrology may be more resistant to change. Increased nutrient enrichment of groundwater is likely and could fuel an expansion of invasive species. Increased human demand for groundwater resources will also likely be an issue in some regions.

Boreal Rich Fen is highly vulnerable to climate change. Highly specific hydro-geologic requirements make it nearly impossible for Boreal Rich Fens to shift within larger peatland complexes or in the larger landscape.

Submitted by dshannon on Mon, 01/25/2021 - 07:57

Potentially lower groundwater levels from increasing evaporation combined with groundwater withdrawals could reduce groundwater upwelling. However, some models suggest that hydrologic changes may be minimal with similar to slightly increased precipitation and higher groundwater recharge projected. In addition, sites fed by deep aquifers are expected to experience less hydrologic change. Nutrient enrichment through changing land use or groundwater pollution may be one of the greatest threats and could increase non-native invasive species.

Bog Relict is moderately to mod.-high vulnerable to climate change. Changing hydrologic regimes could alter this system though Sphagnum and floating mats may buffer future changes. Sites may transition to native shrub-carr or marsh if tamarack is lost.

Submitted by dshannon on Mon, 01/25/2021 - 07:56

Potential changes in precipitation patterns and groundwater infiltration could alter hydrologic regimes, though both floating mats and sites with abundant Sphagnum may buffer some of these potential future changes. Glossy buckthorn and non-native cat-tail are also major concerns and will benefit from projected increases in nutrient loading of groundwater and surface water as well as longer growing seasons. Tamarack, the major tree species of Bog Relict, is projected to decline, although as a pioneer species, it has the ability to regenerate rapidly when conditions are favorable.

Alder Thicket is low to moderately-low vulnerable to climate change. Higher water levels over the long-term could convert some sites to marsh. Alder has the potential to expand as other communities decline.

Submitted by dshannon on Mon, 01/25/2021 - 07:55

More frequent large rain events could increase sedimentation and soil disturbance, leading to increases in non-native invasive species. Nutrient loading of both groundwater and surface water could also fuel invasives. Potential changes in precipitation patterns and groundwater infiltration could alter hydrologic regimes. Although Alder Thicket is generally adapted to short-term water level fluctuations, higher water levels over the long-term could convert some sites to marsh.

Non-forested wetland plants at the southern edge of their range may be vulnerable and sensitive to warming, changing hydrology, and increased runoff.

Submitted by dshannon on Mon, 01/25/2021 - 07:54

With a few exceptions, many dominant non-forested wetland plants also occur well in southerly locations, indicating they may be less sensitive to changes in temperature than to changes in the delicate balance in hydrologic regimes and nutrients. Those species that may be most vulnerable tend to be associated with communities that occur at the southern edge of their range, such as Boreal Rich Fen, Shore Fen, and, in the southern part of the state, Bog Relict and Alder Thicket.

Non-native invasive plants may increase in productivity and may invade into new wetland areas.

Submitted by dshannon on Mon, 01/25/2021 - 07:54

Non-native invasive species are already a problem in many wetland communities. Longer growing seasons disproportionally benefit invasives like reed canary grass, which can continue growing longer in the fall than native grasses and sedges. In addition, sedimentation and excess nutrients favor species like non-native cattail and Phragmites. Elevated levels of atmospheric CO2 may favor woody species, including invasive shrubs like glossy buckthorn.